Beauty with brains, standing equal and above to men we have women who excelled in the field of science to play an important part in the success of India’s successful mission Chandrayaan 2 on 22nd July 2019.

Chandrayaan 2 :

Chandrayaan 2 is an advanced follow up of Chandrayaan 1 which launched 10 years ago. What makes the mission more special and gives a proud feeling to every Indian? They are the project Director and mission director of the ₹978 crore Chandrayaan-2. Both are women scientist from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), India’s premier scientific organisation, leading the country’s space programmes.

Mission Director :

Ritu Karidhal is the Mission Director of Chandrayaan -2. She hails strong from the famous city of Lucknow, working as an efficient part of ISRO since 2007 and playing a leading role as deputy operations director for Mangalyaan and is a Aerospace engineer by qualification. Always showed her talent and with the success of Mangalyaan she got the recognition that she deserved for her work.Referred as the ‘Rocket women of India’ she served as the operation director for many of ISRO’s Mission and showed her potential to the world and recived the ISRO young Scientist Award in 2007 from A.P.J Abdul Kalam.

Ritu also presented TED and TEDx talks where with her experiences and her life changing spirit she very well described the success of the Mars Orbiter Mission.She is known for her calibre and her positive potential that she keeps intact and never let negative events influence her. Serving the ISRO for the past 22 years, she worked in this mission which was launched a week after its earlier scheduled launch was aborted following a technical snag.

What does a Mission Director do?

The person holding this position and authority has the responsibility to plan the entire mission journey. This includes the appropriate time, route, maneuver landing until the spacecraft successfully achieve its mission.
Talking about Chandrayaan 2 and its unmanned landing it will provide the technology which can eventually help explore habitation on moon.

Project Director:

The Lady who equally helped the team is M.Vanitha the project director of the mission. She is the first woman with such a capacity and position in the Indian Space Research Organisation. A design engineer by training, Vanitha was awarded the best Women Scientist in 2006 by the Aeronautical Society of India. Her role in the mission required not just the basic and advanced technological skills but also requires the best of coordination skills to manage a team and direct the project to success.

Muthayya Vanitha, Prior to this mission, Vanitha headed the Telemetry and Telecommand Divisions in the Digital Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre. As Project Director, Vanitha is responsible for the overall smooth functioning of the mission until Chandryaan-2 reaches the moon and beyond.
She is another brain behind this proud mission of India.
Working for this organisation for past 32 years, her hard-work and expertise gave a successful start to India’s billion dream mission. An electronics engineer by qualification she had spent years in lab testing and experimenting. With years of dedication during which she did lab testing, designing and other projects, M.Vanitha attained a managerial position.

In a talk to an English portal she told that she can understand an individual responsibility and contribution to the project and respect the role and input received from them.

Who is a project director?

A person who contemplates design and technology for satellite. It is a major role in the success of any project. As a perfect design is a major concern in efficient working of satellite.

These ladies proved that there is nothing a women cannot do.
The world applauds for the talent and brains these ladies had and also for their contribution in the project.

Facts about Chandrayaan 2:

Mission type
 Lunar orbiter lander rover Launched By ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation
 Launch Mass
Combined 3,850 kg
 Launch Site
Satish Dhawan space center Second Launch Pad
 Orbital Insertion
20 th August 2019 (planned)

Why is ISRO sending another ‘Chandrayaan’ to the Moon?

Moon is the closest cosmic body where space discovery is attempted and documented. It is also a promising testbed to demonstrate the technologies required for deep-space missions.
Chandrayaan-2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

What has been the success rate of these missions?

A total number of 38 soft landing attempts is made by space agencies in the world. And the success rate is 52 percent.

Bengaluru: First picture of Chandrayan 2 Lander (Vikram) and the Rover (Pragyan). India’s second lunar mission that is scheduled to be launched between July 9 and 16, at ISRO Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment facility in Bengaluru, Wednesday, June 12, 2019.

Some of the technological challenges of this mission are:

1.The propulsion system consisting of throttleable engines to ensure landing at low touchdown velocity.

2.Mission management – propellant management at various stages, engine burns, orbit, and trajectory design.

3. Rover Development – Roll down (from the lander) mechanism, roving mechanism (on the lunar surface), development and testing of power systems, thermal systems, communication and mobility systems.

Chandrayaan-2 consists of three components: the Orbiter, the Lander (Vikram) and the Rover (Pragyaan). The Lander of Chandrayaan 2 is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme.

Chandrayaan 2’s algorithm is wholly developed by India’s scientific community.

 Unlike Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to soft-land its Vikram module on the lunar surface and deploy a six-wheeled Rover,
Pragyaan on the Moon to carry out several scientific experiments.

 The mission life of Chandrayaan-2’s Orbiter will be one year whereas the mission life of lander (Vikram) and rover (Pragyan) will be one Lunar day which is equal to fourteen earth days.

Apart from studying the Moon’s surface, Chandrayaan-2 will also examine the satellite’s outer atmosphere.

 The Orbiter payloads will conduct remote-sensing observations from a 100 km orbit while the Lander and Rover payloads will perform in-situ measurements near the landing site.

Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to soft-land the lander -Vikram and rover- Pragyan in a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at latitude of about 70° south.

Chandrayaan-2 has several science payloads to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through a detailed study of topography,
seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of topsoil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

Chandrayaan 2’s Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR) will measure the quantitative estimation of water-ice in the polar
regions.

Its Dual Frequency Radio Science (DFRS) experiment will study the temporal evolution of electron density in the Lunar ionosphere.

Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer or CLASS will measure the Moon’s X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectra to examine the
presence of major elements such as Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Titanium, Iron, Sodium, and its XRF technique will detect these elements by measuring the characteristic X-rays they emit when excited by the Sun’s rays.

Chandrayaan 2’s Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) will observe the X-rays emitted by the Sun and its corona, measure the intensity of solar
radiation in these rays, and support CLASS.

Chandrayaan-2 will study water molecule distribution using infrared spectroscopy, synthetic aperture radiometry & polarimetry as well as mass spectroscopy techniques.

The Chandrayaan-2 mission is a precursor to the ambitious Gaganyaan project, which aims to place three Indians in space by 2022.

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