What is Cryptography?
“Cryptography is the process of securing information by converting them into codes.”
We can also say that Cryptography is the technique of converting plain-text (or an ordinary text) into an encoded text which is not easily understandable by everyone in a single read. This encoded text is known as ciphertext. After decryption (decoding) the ciphertext, the message can be understood. Mainly only those persons for whom the information is intended can understand it.
The basic example of cryptography is an encrypted message in which letters are replaced with other characters.
Modern Cryptography relies on publicly known mathematical algorithms for coding the information. Its secrecy depends on the secrete key which is used to decrypt the information. The absence of a secret key makes it impossible for an attacker to obtain the original information even if the algorithm known, used for the coding. Sounds great, right?
Types of Cryptography:
- Symmetric Key Cryptography: Single key uses to encrypt and decrypt the message. Also known as private key cryptography because the keys only are known to the sender and the receiver. These systems are faster but lesser secure on comparing with other cryptosystems.
- Hash Functions: No use of any key in this algorithm. A hash function takes the arbitrary length of the message as input and gives a fixed length of the output, based on a mathematical equation.
- Asymmetric Key Cryptography: Also known as a public key. Here a pair of keys are used to encrypt and decrypt data. Where the public key is used for encryption and the private key is used for decryption.
Cryptographic techniques are used to secure messages between two or more parties (like in WhatsApp, E-mail messages), credit card details, storage media, audio/video broadcasting and other sensitive information.
Today security is the most crucial thing that we should have to concern with. Here the term Cryptography plays an important role, from our basic day-to-day life to the life at the border of the country. Cryptography plays a big role in our life to secure data from thieves.
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